# National Statistics

Ratio of lawyers per capita
Ratio of law students per capita
Ratio of lawyers per state GSP
Ratio of law students per GSP

# 2017: Full-Time Law Students Paying Full Tuition *Rises* By 0.4 Percentage Points

Discussions of law-school costs are incomplete if they do not account for discounts some students receive, usually merit scholarships paid for by their full-tuition-paying classmates. To analyze the phenomenon of discounting, I focus on the ABA’s 509 information reports’ scholarship data. This information lags the academic year by one year, so as of the 2018-19 academic year, we now have data on 2017-18.

At the average law school not in Puerto Rico in 2017, the proportion of full-time students paying full tuition rose by 0.4 percentage points from 25.4 percent to 25.8 percent. At the median law school less than one quarter of students pay full tuition.

The proportion of students paying full tuition has fallen considerably over the years. At the turn of the century, more than half of students paid full cost; now about a quarter do.

At private law schools, which are easier to analyze because they don’t price discriminate in favor of resident students, the average number of students receiving grants ranging between half and full tuition again exceeds the number paying full tuition. Many more receive a grant worth less-than-half tuition, though their numbers are diminishing.

One advantage of knowing how many full-time students pay full tuition is that we can estimate the total revenue they generate for private law schools, except Brigham Young University, which charges LDS students less.

Since 2011, the peak year, inflation-adjusted revenue from full-tuition-paying full-time students has fallen 53 percent. Since 2001, the last year for which data are available, the drop is 32 percent. In 2017, the median private law school’s full-tuition revenue was \$4.3 million, down from \$12.8 million in 2011 but up 7 percent since 2016. In 2001, the median was \$9.5 million. This is quite a decline.

So how substantially are private law schools discounting? The best way to answer that question is by using the sticker price at private law schools as the independent variable, and treating as the dependent variable their tuition after subtracting their median grant (median-discounted tuition “MDT”). First I divide private law schools into full tuition quintiles and give their mean averages. Then I take mean of the MDTs within each quintile.

We find that while full tuition inexorably climbs upward and disperses, the MDTs are trending downward and together, indicating significant discounting. Notably, the MDT at the most expensive law schools is about as much as full tuition at the cheapest private law schools.

That’s all for now; on to the shaming and ridiculing.

Raspberries: I’m giving out three raspberries to law schools for clearly misreporting scholarship data to the ABA:

• Number 1 goes to Mitchell|Hamline for reporting 482 full-time students receiving scholarships out of … 473 full time students. Those -9 full-time students receiving breaks to their tuition must be truly exceptional. I should add that Mitchell|Hamline made the same mistake last year with only one full-time law student receiving a grant or scholarship in excess of its full-time enrollment. According to U.S. News it had 481 full-time students, which is still one short.
• The second raspberry goes to Texas Southern for not reporting any median grant information. As a public law school it luckily doesn’t affect any of the above calculations, but it’s still lazy misreporting by a law school.
• Finally, Regent also has 196 out of 195 full-time students receiving a grant or scholarship, for a truly blessed -1 full-time student. U.S. News has it at 218 for last year.

Honorary mention goes to the ABA Section of Legal Education and Admissions for the Bar for discontinuing reporting full-time and part-time student enrollment each year. Leaving it to the grant and scholarship data means that there isn’t a good way to double-check law schools’ errors and discontinues a dataset it’s reliably collected for decades.

Information on this topic from previous years:

# 2018: Full-Time Private Law-School Tuition Up 3.1 Percent

Despite arbitrary data meddling by the ABA Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar and significant misreporting by law schools, I will estimate changes in annual (as in what people care about and what the ABA no longer collects) full-time law-school tuition for 2018. The appendix at the end of the post will summarize how I arrived at my tuition figures. However, I’m still disgusted by how the law schools and the ABA have handled this year’s data collection. On with the show:

Full-time tuition costs at private law schools not in Puerto Rico rose an average 3.1 percent before adjusting for inflation. The rate is about the same as last year’s increase, but it’s still well below the typical 5 percent rate before the Great Recession. For seven years now, the average increase has been below 4 percent. I focus on private law-school tuition because public law schools receive varying degrees of state subsidies, so they do not reflect the already distorted legal-education market’s prices.

Here’s what the inflation-adjusted dispersion of full-time private and full-time public (residential) tuition looks like going back to 1996:

For the last few years I’ve been eyeballing the 25th-percentile public law school’s residential tuition to see if it will rise above the annual Stafford Loan limit of \$20,500. In 2018 it fell not even \$200 shy of that symbolic line of unaffordability. By my estimates, 16 out of 117 private law schools charge more than \$60,000. Ever the leader, Columbia was \$84 short of charging \$70,000. Next year it will likely have raised its costs by \$20,000 in ten years.

In 2018, the median private law school charged \$48,166 (DePaul); the mean was \$48,383 (between John Marshall (Chicago) and Vermont).

# 2018: ABA Publishes Hot Tuition Garbage Instead of Usable Numbers [UPDATED]

It’s been two weeks since the ABA released its 509 information reports and accompanying spreadsheets. Lazy as I am I didn’t get to the tuition figures until last night, when to my astonishment I found that the tuition data were an excrementitious string of Arabic numerals. Seriously, the ABA has been doing this for five years, and while one or two law schools always fail to report their costs (because it’s, so, so hard to do the same thing once a year) I’ve never seen it publish numbers that were so clearly wrong.

I count seventeen law schools without any tuition numbers. I can understand why Valparaiso and Arizona Summit wouldn’t bother supplying them, but the rest is inexcusable. Even Stanford is on the list of shame.

The next seven reported bizarre three-digit numbers. A year of law school costs \$35 at Washburn in Kansans. I have no idea where that came from, but a few public schools (Indiana-Indianapolis, Missouri-Columbia) look like they supplied their costs per credit hour rather than their annual charges.

Then I count 128 (!!) law schools that appeared to supply either semester or trimester tuition costs. There all off by 40-67 percent, clustering at 50 percent.

So more than half of the ABA law schools either supplied bad numbers to the ABA, which didn’t QC any of them, or the ABA messed up. Wow. RIP data transparency.

[Update: Per a reader comment, it appears in the 509 information reports themselves, the ABA now tracks tuition by semester, which will necessitate annualizing the numbers manually. Yes, I’d looked at these but didn’t see that change. However, instead of 128 law schools incorrectly sending semester numbers, that leaves 51 that misreported annual tuition instead of semester tuition. So while 128 law schools appeared to have reported correct numbers, 73 (less Arizona Summit and Valparaiso) did not. The ABA should still do a better job of QCing the data and ensuring law schools are completing forms correctly. I’ll try to come up with a new post that fixes all this.]

Here’s my table of proof:

STATE SCHOOL TYPE 2017 2018 % CHANGE
Arizona Arizona Summit Private \$45,284 \$0 -100.0%
Arkansas University of Arkansas Public Res. \$16,117 \$0 -100.0%
Arkansas University of Arkansas (Little Rock) Public Res. \$15,732 \$0 -100.0%
California Santa Clara University Private \$48,916 \$0 -100.0%
California Stanford Private \$60,270 \$0 -100.0%
California Whittier Law School Private \$44,370 \$0 -100.0%
Florida Florida International University Public Res. \$21,806 \$0 -100.0%
Idaho Concordia University School of Law Private \$30,343 \$0 -100.0%
Indiana Valparaiso University Private \$41,522 \$0 -100.0%
Kansas University of Kansas Public Res. \$21,996 \$0 -100.0%
Michigan Cooley Private \$51,370 \$0 -100.0%
Missouri University of Missouri (Kansas City) Public Res. \$19,040 \$0 -100.0%
New York Brooklyn Private \$50,706 \$0 -100.0%
Oklahoma University of Oklahoma Public Res. \$20,903 \$0 -100.0%
Pennsylvania Drexel University Private \$44,340 \$0 -100.0%
Texas University of Houston Public Res. \$31,021 \$0 -100.0%
Delaware Widener University (Delaware) Private \$48,920 \$60 -99.9%
Pennsylvania Widener University (Commonwealth) Private \$44,548 \$60 -99.9%
Kansas Washburn University Public Res. \$21,588 \$35 -99.8%
Illinois John Marshall (Chicago) Private \$48,600 \$275 -99.4%
Ohio University of Dayton Private \$33,739 \$209 -99.4%
Indiana Indiana Unversity (Indianapolis) Public Res. \$28,631 \$547 -98.1%
Missouri University of Missouri (Columbia) Public Res. \$21,407 \$894 -95.8%
Illinois University of Chicago Private \$62,865 \$21,766 -65.4%
Texas Baylor University Private \$60,050 \$20,807 -65.4%
Ohio University of Akron Public Res. \$24,214 \$11,323 -53.2%
Puerto Rico Pontifical Catholic University of PR Private \$16,418 \$7,869 -52.1%
Hawaii University of Hawaii Public Res. \$23,142 \$11,196 -51.6%
Florida Florida A&M University Public Res. \$14,132 \$6,838 -51.6%
Minnesota University of Minnesota Public Res. \$44,066 \$21,420 -51.4%
Kentucky University of Louisville Public Res. \$21,392 \$10,598 -50.5%
Ohio Cleveland State University Public Res. \$27,360 \$13,605 -50.3%
California UC Los Angeles Public Res. \$45,657 \$22,800 -50.1%
California UC Davis Public Res. \$47,763 \$23,861 -50.0%
California Western State College Private \$43,350 \$21,675 -50.0%
Georgia Georgia State University Public Res. \$17,050 \$8,525 -50.0%
Maine University of Maine Public Res. \$23,640 \$11,820 -50.0%
Ohio University of Cincinnati Public Res. \$24,010 \$12,005 -50.0%
Oklahoma University of Tulsa Private \$25,254 \$12,627 -50.0%
Texas Texas Southern University Public Res. \$20,418 \$10,209 -50.0%
Tennessee University of Memphis Public Res. \$19,197 \$9,599 -50.0%
Illinois Northern Illinois University Public Res. \$22,178 \$11,090 -50.0%
Virginia George Mason University Public Res. \$25,351 \$12,677 -50.0%
New Hampshire University of New Hampshire Public Res. \$37,401 \$18,703 -50.0%
Illinois University of Illinois Public Res. \$38,098 \$19,059 -50.0%
Florida Florida State University Public Res. \$20,683 \$10,347 -50.0%
Georgia University of Georgia Public Res. \$19,696 \$9,854 -50.0%
Tennessee University of Tennessee Public Res. \$19,638 \$9,837 -49.9%
Vermont Vermont Law School Private \$47,998 \$24,127 -49.7%
North Carolina Wake Forest University Private \$45,110 \$22,680 -49.7%
Louisiana Loyola University New Orleans Private \$44,330 \$22,290 -49.7%
Oklahoma Oklahoma City University Private \$35,340 \$17,815 -49.6%
Alabama Univeristy of Alabama Public Res. \$23,720 \$11,960 -49.6%
Kentucky University of Kentucky Public Res. \$23,783 \$12,023 -49.4%
North Carolina North Carolina Central University Public Res. \$18,533 \$9,369 -49.4%
Illinois Loyola University Chicago Private \$48,406 \$24,481 -49.4%
North Carolina University of North Carolina Public Res. \$23,889 \$12,086 -49.4%
Florida Ave Maria Private \$41,706 \$21,103 -49.4%
Virginia Regent University Private \$36,140 \$18,310 -49.3%
California University of San Francisco Private \$49,130 \$24,910 -49.3%
South Carolina Charleston Law School Private \$41,548 \$21,067 -49.3%
New Mexico University of New Mexico Public Res. \$17,147 \$8,699 -49.3%
Minnesota Mitchell|Hamline Private \$42,816 \$21,730 -49.2%
District of Columbia Howard University Private \$33,630 \$17,097 -49.2%
Illinois Illinois Institute of Technology Private \$46,822 \$23,822 -49.1%
Michigan Michigan State University Private \$43,400 \$22,100 -49.1%
Ohio Ohio State Universtity Public Res. \$30,264 \$15,424 -49.0%
Illinois DePaul University Private \$47,230 \$24,083 -49.0%
New York Touro College Private \$48,830 \$24,900 -49.0%
Texas University of Texas Public Res. \$35,015 \$17,857 -49.0%
New York Cardozo Private \$58,764 \$29,970 -49.0%
Virginia Washington and Lee University Private \$48,375 \$24,678 -49.0%
Tennessee Belmont University Private \$43,480 \$22,235 -48.9%
Massachusetts Suffolk University Private \$46,932 \$24,045 -48.8%
South Carolina University of South Carolina Public Res. \$28,858 \$14,804 -48.7%
Missouri Saint Louis University Private \$41,025 \$21,077 -48.6%
Ohio Case Western Reserve University Private \$50,666 \$26,035 -48.6%
Maryland University of Baltimore Public Res. \$31,084 \$15,977 -48.6%
Texas South Texas-Houston Private \$31,500 \$16,200 -48.6%
Texas Southern Methodist University Private \$52,586 \$27,047 -48.6%
California Pepperdine University Private \$54,260 \$27,915 -48.6%
Michigan Wayne State University Public Res. \$31,956 \$16,441 -48.6%
New York Syracuse University Private \$49,966 \$25,711 -48.5%
New York Hofstra University Private \$57,510 \$29,607 -48.5%
Pennsylvania Villanova University Private \$45,195 \$23,268 -48.5%
Minnesota University of St. Thomas Private \$40,247 \$20,721 -48.5%
New York City University of New York Public Res. \$15,113 \$7,782 -48.5%
Wisconsin Marquette University Private \$44,830 \$23,085 -48.5%
New York Albany Law School Private \$46,072 \$23,725 -48.5%
Utah Brigham Young University Private \$25,360 \$18,506 -48.5%
Massachusetts Northeastern University Private \$49,224 \$25,350 -48.5%
Oregon Lewis & Clark College Private \$45,020 \$23,185 -48.5%
Texas St. Mary’s University Private \$36,310 \$18,705 -48.5%
North Carolina Campbell University Private \$39,900 \$20,565 -48.5%
California Golden Gate University Private \$48,500 \$25,000 -48.5%
Alabama Faulkner University Private \$38,000 \$19,592 -48.4%
Massachusetts New England Law | Boston Private \$47,992 \$24,744 -48.4%
Virginia College of William & Mary Public Res. \$32,964 \$17,000 -48.4%
New Jersey Rutgers University Public Res. \$27,492 \$14,179 -48.4%
Connecticut University of Connecticut Public Res. \$29,410 \$15,169 -48.4%
Georgia John Marshall (Atlanta) Private \$42,628 \$21,993 -48.4%
California University of the Pacific Private \$49,720 \$25,656 -48.4%
Iowa University of Iowa Public Res. \$26,456 \$13,671 -48.3%
Washington Seattle University Private \$45,054 \$23,293 -48.3%
District of Columbia American University Private \$54,832 \$28,362 -48.3%
Massachusetts Boston University Private \$53,236 \$27,538 -48.3%
New York St. John’s University Private \$57,480 \$29,740 -48.3%
Massachusetts Harvard Private \$62,792 \$32,489 -48.3%
Nebraska Creighton University Private \$38,744 \$20,048 -48.3%
District of Columbia Catholic University of America Private \$49,800 \$25,780 -48.2%
Florida University of Miami Private \$50,578 \$26,195 -48.2%
Massachusetts Boston College Private \$52,850 \$27,375 -48.2%
Georgia Emory University Private \$55,336 \$28,674 -48.2%
Louisiana Tulane University Private \$54,568 \$28,286 -48.2%
Illinois Southern Illinois University Public Res. \$21,754 \$11,282 -48.1%
Illinois Northwestern University Private \$62,084 \$32,201 -48.1%
New York Fordham University Private \$58,196 \$30,203 -48.1%
California Loyola Law School Private \$55,110 \$28,615 -48.1%
Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Private \$63,364 \$32,902 -48.1%
District of Columbia George Washington University Private \$58,520 \$30,395 -48.1%
Pennsylvania Penn State University (Dickinson) Public Res. \$48,686 \$25,291 -48.1%
Pennsylvania Penn State University (Penn State Law) Public Res. \$49,070 \$25,492 -48.0%
Colorado University of Denver Private \$49,022 \$25,471 -48.0%
California University of La Verne Private \$30,024 \$15,604 -48.0%
North Carolina Duke University Private \$62,247 \$32,361 -48.0%
Oregon Willamette University Private \$42,680 \$22,190 -48.0%
Ohio Ohio Northern University Private \$28,010 \$14,580 -47.9%
Mississippi University of Mississippi Public Res. \$15,882 \$8,275 -47.9%
Tennessee Lincoln Memorial University Private \$35,340 \$18,420 -47.9%
Michigan University of Michigan Public Res. \$57,262 \$29,881 -47.8%
Oregon University of Oregon Public Res. \$33,922 \$17,709 -47.8%
Florida Barry University Private \$35,845 \$18,715 -47.8%
Alabama Samford University Private \$38,448 \$20,075 -47.8%
Indiana Indiana University (Bloomington) Public Res. \$34,073 \$17,794 -47.8%
Massachusetts Massachusetts-Dartmouth Public Res. \$27,291 \$14,263 -47.7%
Wisconsin University of Wisconsin Public Res. \$22,496 \$11,759 -47.7%
Florida St. Thomas University Private \$40,282 \$21,095 -47.6%
Pennsylvania Duquesne University Private \$42,844 \$22,472 -47.5%
Michigan University of Detroit Private \$42,140 \$22,110 -47.5%
Kentucky Northern Kentucky University Public Res. \$19,370 \$10,166 -47.5%
West Virginia West Virginia University Public Res. \$22,878 \$12,042 -47.4%
Ohio Capital University Private \$36,112 \$19,145 -47.0%
Idaho University of Idaho Public Res. \$19,748 \$10,493 -46.9%
Utah University of Utah Public Res. \$26,641 \$14,177 -46.8%
South Dakota University of South Dakota Public Res. \$15,668 \$8,472 -45.9%
Texas Texas A&M University Public Res. \$28,504 \$15,500 -45.6%
Ohio University of Toledo Public Res. \$20,004 \$10,948 -45.3%
Virginia Appalachian Private \$31,700 \$17,750 -44.0%
Texas Texas Tech University Public Res. \$22,996 \$13,420 -41.6%
North Carolina Elon University Private \$36,667 \$22,275 -39.3%
Florida University of Florida Public Res. \$22,299 \$21,803 -2.2%
Florida Florida Coastal Private \$46,171 \$46,068 -0.2%
California UC Irvine Public Res. \$45,155 \$45,099 -0.1%
California UC Berkeley Public Res. \$49,364 \$49,325 -0.1%
Arizona Univeristy of Arizona Public Res. \$25,826 \$25,826 0.0%
California UC Hastings Public Res. \$44,326 \$44,326 0.0%
California Thomas Jefferson Private \$49,500 \$49,500 0.0%
Wyoming University of Wyoming Public Res. \$16,350 \$16,350 0.0%
Mississippi Mississippi College Private \$35,500 \$35,510 0.0%
New York SUNY Buffalo Public Res. \$28,016 \$28,075 0.2%
Puerto Rico Interamerican University of PR Private \$16,603 \$16,645 0.3%
Arizona Arizona State University Public Res. \$27,388 \$27,584 0.7%
Connecticut Quinnipiac University Private \$48,805 \$49,540 1.5%
New Jersey Seton Hall University Private \$53,046 \$54,090 2.0%
Georgia Mercer University Private \$37,962 \$38,716 2.0%
California Chapman University Private \$52,086 \$53,124 2.0%
New York New York Law School Private \$50,718 \$51,732 2.0%
Iowa Drake University Private \$40,612 \$41,512 2.2%
Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh Public Res. \$34,008 \$34,834 2.4%
Louisiana Louisiana State University Public Res. \$23,083 \$23,660 2.5%
District of Columbia University of D.C. Public Res. \$12,516 \$12,838 2.6%
Florida Stetson University Private \$42,646 \$43,880 2.9%
New York Pace University Private \$47,210 \$48,614 3.0%
Virginia Liberty University Private \$35,782 \$36,862 3.0%
Massachusetts Western New England University Private \$40,954 \$42,218 3.1%
California University of San Diego Private \$52,571 \$54,280 3.3%
Connecticut Yale Private \$62,170 \$64,267 3.4%
Florida Nova Southeastern University Private \$39,830 \$41,200 3.4%
New York Columbia University Private \$67,564 \$69,916 3.5%
New York Cornell Private \$63,327 \$65,541 3.5%
California University of Southern California Private \$62,711 \$64,908 3.5%
California California Western Private \$50,670 \$52,470 3.6%
Maryland University of Maryland Public Res. \$32,492 \$33,651 3.6%
Missouri Washington University Private \$55,423 \$57,445 3.6%
Indiana Notre Dame Private \$56,292 \$58,358 3.7%
New York New York University Private \$63,986 \$66,422 3.8%
Pennsylvania Temple University Public Res. \$26,103 \$27,103 3.8%
Virginia University of Richmond Private \$43,000 \$44,700 4.0%
District of Columbia Georgetown Private \$59,850 \$62,244 4.0%
Texas North Texas-Dallas Public Res. \$8,748 \$9,107 4.1%
Virginia University of Virginia Public Res. \$58,300 \$60,700 4.1%
Louisiana Southern University Law Center Public Res. \$15,802 \$16,490 4.4%
California Southwestern University Private \$51,890 \$54,166 4.4%
Tennessee Vanderbilt University Private \$55,083 \$57,558 4.5%
Washington University of Washington Public Res. \$34,311 \$35,988 4.9%
Montana University of Montana Public Res. \$12,562 \$13,177 4.9%
Washington Gonzaga University Private \$38,715 \$40,665 5.0%
Rhode Island Roger Williams University Private \$34,833 \$36,815 5.7%
Puerto Rico University of Puerto Rico Public Res. \$7,383 \$7,852 6.4%
North Dakota University of North Dakota Public Res. \$12,232 \$13,023 6.5%

Ugh. Disgusting. Makes me feel bad for the schools that clearly did everything right, like they’re supposed to each year. [Commented retracted for meanness. Apologies to the 128 law schools that correctly reported semester tuition, raspberries to the rest and the ABA for not ensuring consistency.]

Information on this topic from prior years:

# 2018: Total Applications Up, But Only for the Top Half

By October 2018, there were 37,052 enrollees at 200 ABA-accredited law schools not in Puerto Rico. This is up 1,290 (+7.9 percent) from 35,762 in October 2017. (Last year, the initial reporting had 35,381 enrollees, so there’s been significant upward revision.) This year marks the first “clean” comparison between two enrollment cycles because the ABA adopted the October-October standard last year. In 2018, one law school, Valparaiso, dropped to zero enrollees. It had 28 last year. Miraculously, Arizona Summit submitted a report. It had 65 applicants and 17 enrollees (49 last year). Thus, neither of these law schools hampered the upward trend in enrollments much.

Moving on to applications…

Predictably, with more applicants acceptance rates are lower this year. The median law school accepted just less than half of everyone who applied.

Applicants showed more interest in some law schools than others this year. The Gini coefficient for applications among all 200 of these law schools is now 0.442, which is 1.4 points higher than last year (0.427). By contrast, back in 2011 it was only 0.357. (You can read about what that means here.)

Some of this increased application inequality is even visible in my modified Lorenz curve, a measure that typically measures the cumulative distribution of a quantity in order from the recipient of the smallest amount to the largest. Usually researchers use the distribution of income among households. I’ve modified the Lorenz curve according to the U.S. News and World Report rankings for the previous year because the rankings are an independent measurement of law-school eliteness as seen by LSAT takers and applicants roughly at the time that they apply. Here is what I could cobble together going back to 2011.

Last year, I asked, “Will unheralded law schools benefit from the bump, or will our idealists apply strategically to top law schools?” The answer appears to be no followed by a yes. The U.S. News rankings can be quite volatile further down, but not so much between chunks of 50, at least for this year. It appears that the average top-50 law school received 14 percent more applications than in the 2017 October cycle. The next 50 reaped a 12.7 percent increase, but the remaining saw almost no benefit of the Trump bump on average. In short, for law schools below 100 it’s business as usual, i.e. slow.

That’s all.

Information on this topic from prior years:

# Office of Management and Budget: +\$845 Billion in Direct Loans by 2028

Nearly every year in July the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) publishes its Mid-Session Review (MSR) of the federal budget, which includes the Federal Direct Loan Program, and projects its future. These direct loans consist primarily of federal student loans, but there are a few other programs in there as well. However, it does not include private student loans, but these are a small percentage of all student loans and smaller still of new student loans. Thus, the MSR measure is both over- and under-inclusive of all student loans, but it covers most of them.

The OMB classifies direct loan accounts as financial assets totaling \$1.281 trillion in 2017, but careful readers of these reports will find that OMB has now combined direct loans with “Troubled Asset Relief (TARP) equity purchase accounts.” No reason is given, and these items don’t appear related. In prior years TARP amounts have been negligible, so I’ll continue this series, assuming these TARP accounts make no impact. According to the office’s projection, by 2028 this figure will grow to \$2.126 trillion—66 percent growth.

(Source: OMB FY2018 Mid-Session Review (pdf))

As with previous years, the current (2017) direct loan balance is below the OMB’s past projections, but not by much. For example, in FY2012, it predicted the balance would be \$1.593 trillion by 2017, \$312 billion (24 percent) higher than what actually occurred. Here are the OMB’s direct loan projections going back to FY2010.

As with last year, the OMB projects less student lending than during most of the Obama presidency. At the time, I noted that the projection came in much lower, but now it’s trending back upward. By 2028, federal student loans will reach \$2.126 trillion. Because the OMB expects GDP to grow as well over this time period (we’d have bigger problems than student loans if it didn’t), the ratio of direct loans to GDP will level off below 7 percent over the next decade.

The OMB’s measure of direct loans is the net amount owed to the government, and the annual changes to that amount are not the same as the amount lent out each year to students. The Department of Education tracks its lending, which I discuss on the Student Deb Data page.

———-

Past coverage of this data series:

# State-Level Employment Projections: High Lawyer Replacement

Every two years the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) publishes state-level employment projections on its affiliated Web site projectionscentral.com. The data from this site include estimates of the number of lawyer positions (not people who are lawyers) out there in 2016, a prediction of how many there will be by 2026 (assuming full employment), and the projected number of annual lawyer job openings.

In past years this topic was one of my favorites because I could compare the number of lawyer job openings to the numbers of law-school graduates (via the ABA) and new bar admits (via the NCBEX). However, because the BLS changed its methodology for calculating occupational replacement rates a few years ago, this is no longer possible. Instead, I can show the ten-year replacement rate for lawyers by state, but first here are the basic numbers compared to those from the previous cycle two years ago.

STATE/BEA REGION NO. EMPLOYED LAWYERS LAWYER EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS ANNUAL LAWYER GROWTH RATE
2014 2016 % CHANGE 2024 2026 % CHANGE 2024 2026 % CHANGE
Alabama 7,050 6,860 -2.7% 7,410 7,400 -0.1% 140 350 N/A
Alaska 1,070 1,030 -3.7% 1,020 930 -8.8% 20 30 N/A
Arizona 9,630 11,830 22.8% 11,870 13,310 12.1% 370 670 N/A
Arkansas 4,720 3,900 -17.4% 5,360 4,520 -15.7% 130 240 N/A
California 91,900 97,400 6.0% 102,700 108,000 5.2% 2,420 5,330 N/A
Colorado 15,800 14,630 -7.4% 19,270 17,370 -9.9% 600 1,010 N/A
Connecticut 12,620 12,260 -2.9% 13,080 12,960 -0.9% 230 590 N/A
Delaware 3,540 3,270 -7.6% 3,660 3,550 -3.0% 60 170 N/A
District of Columbia 38,920 39,360 1.1% 41,480 41,770 0.7% 830 1,920 N/A
Florida 59,400 60,180 1.3% 68,400 67,970 -0.6% 1,770 3,440 N/A
Georgia 18,160 20,570 13.3% 19,690 22,800 15.8% 420 1,120 N/A
Hawaii 2,410 2,690 11.6% 2,500 2,820 12.8% 40 130 N/A
Idaho 3,030 1,460 -51.8% 2,960 1,610 -45.6% 50 80 N/A
Illinois 35,840 36,230 1.1% 37,950 39,280 3.5% 740 1,870 N/A
Indiana 9,450 10,500 11.1% 10,520 11,530 9.6% 250 560 N/A
Iowa 4,340 4,330 -0.2% 4,880 4,880 0.0% 120 250 N/A
Kansas 5,090 4,750 -6.7% 5,570 5,350 -3.9% 130 270 N/A
Kentucky 9,490 6,850 -27.8% 10,640 7,250 -31.9% 250 330 N/A
Louisiana 9,180 8,390 -8.6% 9,730 9,210 -5.3% 190 450 N/A
Maine 3,170 3,000 -5.4% 3,210 3,020 -5.9% 50 130 N/A
Maryland 11,690 14,520 24.2% 13,370 14,930 11.7% 360 540 N/A
Massachusetts 22,100 22,220 0.5% 23,080 23,880 3.5% 420 1,120 N/A
Michigan 17,900 18,770 4.9% 19,230 20,140 4.7% 400 940 N/A
Minnesota 12,640 12,640 0.0% 13,340 13,800 3.4% 260 660 N/A
Mississippi 3,760 4,150 10.4% 4,030 4,200 4.2% 80 180 N/A
Missouri 12,470 12,220 -2.0% 13,160 13,510 2.7% 250 660 N/A
Montana 2,550 2,490 -2.4% 2,830 2,700 -4.6% 70 130 N/A
Nebraska 3,910 3,720 -4.9% 4,400 4,220 -4.1% 110 220 N/A
Nevada 6,030 7,050 16.9% 7,880 7,560 -4.1% 270 350 N/A
New Hampshire 2,010 1,950 -3.0% 2,070 2,090 1.0% 40 100 N/A
New Jersey 24,520 26,610 8.5% 25,140 28,660 14.0% 420 1,350 N/A
New Mexico 3,810 3,600 -5.5% 3,830 3,760 -1.8% 60 170 N/A
New York 90,830 84,230 -7.3% 99,020 93,900 -5.2% 2,150 4,660 N/A
North Carolina 16,020 14,430 -9.9% 17,870 16,010 -10.4% 420 790 N/A
North Dakota 1,740 2,080 19.5% 1,790 2,240 25.1% 30 110 N/A
Ohio 20,180 20,150 -0.1% 21,290 20,120 -5.5% 410 830 N/A
Oklahoma 9,480 8,280 -12.7% 10,290 8,930 -13.2% 220 420 N/A
Oregon 8,250 8,180 -0.8% 9,440 8,960 -5.1% 240 430 N/A
Pennsylvania 31,240 31,640 1.3% 32,960 33,790 2.5% 630 1,570 N/A
Puerto Rico 4,420 4,260 -3.6% 4,500 4,250 -5.6% 70 170 N/A
Rhode Island 4,210 4,050 -3.8% 4,460 4,250 -4.7% 90 190 N/A
South Carolina 7,220 8,160 13.0% 7,670 8,870 15.6% 150 420 N/A
South Dakota 980 970 -1.0% 1,080 1,070 -0.9% 20 50 N/A
Tennessee 7,990 9,660 20.9% 8,690 10,850 24.9% 200 550 N/A
Texas 51,420 N/A N/A 63,140 N/A N/A 1,920 N/A N/A
Utah 5,310 5,550 4.5% 6,360 6,800 6.9% 180 380 N/A
Vermont 1,940 1,950 0.5% 1,990 1,940 -2.5% 30 80 N/A
Virginia 21,860 21,530 -1.5% 24,150 23,660 -2.0% 550 1,150 N/A
Washington 17,290 15,510 -10.3% 18,940 17,040 -10.0% 430 830 N/A
West Virginia N/A 3,230 N/A N/A 135 N/A N/A 150 N/A
Wisconsin 9,620 9,400 -2.3% 9,940 9,870 -0.7% 170 450 N/A
Wyoming 1,160 1,020 -12.1% 1,130 1,060 -6.2% 20 50 N/A
STATES (EXCL. P.R.) 774,940 777,640 0.3% 854,470 857,480 0.4% 19,410 40,240 N/A
U.S.A. (EXCL. P.R.) 778,700 792,500 1.8% 822,500 857,500 4.3% 15,770 40,700 N/A
New England 46,050 45,430 -1.3% 47,890 48,140 0.5% 860 2,210 N/A
Mideast 200,740 199,630 -0.6% 215,630 216,600 0.4% 4,450 10,210 N/A
Great Lakes 92,990 95,050 2.2% 98,930 100,940 2.0% 1,970 4,650 N/A
Plains 41,170 40,710 -1.1% 44,220 45,070 1.9% 920 2,220 N/A
Southeast* 164,850 164,680* -0.1%* 183,640 182,740* -0.5%* 4,300 9,020* N/A
Southwest* 74,340 75,130* 1.1%* 89,130 89,140* 0.0%* 2,570 >3,180* N/A
Rocky Mountains 27,850 25,150 -9.7% 32,550 29,540 -9.2% 920 1,650 N/A
Far West 126,950 131,860 3.9% 142,480 145,310 2.0% 3,420 7,100 N/A

(Note: Only Texas did not report its numbers this year, which is lamentable because it’s a large state. West Virginia did not report two years ago. For the purposes of the regional estimates, wherever there were gaps, I used Texas’ 2014 numbers for this year and omitted West Virginia entirely.)

Superficially, one can tell that the data are erratic. It’s unlikely that half of Idaho’s lawyers disappeared in two years, and there are other wide swings like Maryland and Kentucky. The BEA regional numbers look steadier though.

On to the specifics. You can clearly see that the annual job growth numbers are much higher for 2016, but that’s because of the methodology change, not anything to do with the legal labor market. Presumably, had the new methodology been used in the past, the numbers would have been quite higher. Even as it is, unfortunately, the new methodology gives the misleading impression that the legal profession is capable of absorbing significant numbers of law-school graduates and new lawyers. Indeed, the class of 2017 only had about 34,500 persons, and nearly 42,000 people were admitted by examination or diploma privilege. Certainly this should indicate a healthy employment situation for law graduates, right?

The question isn’t simply whether grads get jobs, but what kind of jobs they are and how long they keep them. Moreover, lawyer positions that open by replacement won’t necessarily be filled by new lawyers. So, here’s a table depicting the projected annual number of new lawyer jobs created each year until 2026, the number created by replacement, and an estimate of the ten-year replacement rate.

STATE Annual New Lawyer Jobs Annual Replacement Lawyer Jobs 10-Year Lawyer Replacement Rate
2024 2026 2024 2026 2026
Alabama 36 54 104 296 43.1%
Alaska -5 -10 N/A N/A N/A
Arizona 224 148 146 522 44.1%
Arkansas 64 62 66 178 45.6%
California 1,080 1,060 1,340 4,270 43.8%
Colorado 347 274 253 736 50.3%
Connecticut 46 70 184 520 42.4%
Delaware 12 28 48 142 43.4%
District of Columbia 256 241 574 1,679 42.7%
Florida 900 779 870 2,661 44.2%
Georgia 153 223 267 897 43.6%
Hawaii 9 13 31 117 43.5%
Idaho -7 15 N/A 65 44.5%
Illinois 211 305 529 1,565 43.2%
Indiana 107 103 143 457 43.5%
Iowa 54 55 66 195 45.0%
Kansas 48 60 82 210 44.2%
Kentucky 115 40 135 290 42.3%
Louisiana 55 82 135 368 43.9%
Maine 4 2 46 128 42.7%
Maryland 168 41 192 499 34.4%
Massachusetts 98 166 322 954 42.9%
Michigan 133 137 267 803 42.8%
Minnesota 70 116 190 544 43.0%
Mississippi 27 5 53 175 42.2%
Missouri 69 129 181 531 43.5%
Montana 28 21 42 109 43.8%
Nebraska 49 50 61 170 45.7%
Nevada 185 51 85 299 42.4%
New Hampshire 6 14 34 86 44.1%
New Jersey 62 205 358 1,145 43.0%
New Mexico 2 16 58 154 42.8%
New York 819 967 1,331 3,693 43.8%
North Carolina 185 158 235 632 43.8%
North Dakota 5 16 25 94 45.2%
Ohio 111 -3 299 N/A N/A
Oklahoma 81 65 139 355 42.9%
Oregon 119 78 121 352 43.0%
Pennsylvania 172 215 458 1,355 42.8%
Puerto Rico 8 -1 62 N/A N/A
Rhode Island 25 20 65 170 42.0%
South Carolina 45 71 105 349 42.8%
South Dakota 10 10 10 40 41.2%
Tennessee 70 119 130 431 44.6%
Texas 1,172 N/A 748 N/A N/A
Utah 105 125 75 255 45.9%
Vermont 5 -1 25 N/A N/A
Virginia 229 213 321 937 43.5%
Washington 165 153 265 677 43.6%
West Virginia N/A 15 N/A 135 41.8%
Wisconsin 32 47 138 403 42.9%
Wyoming -3 4 N/A 46 45.1%
U.S.A. (EXCL. P.R.) 4,380 6,500 11,390 34,200 43.2%

(Note: States that predict declines in lawyer counts do not have replacement rates. Also, the U.S.A. totals at the bottom are not the sums of the individual jurisdictions of them.)

The one ray of hope here is the faster rate of new lawyer job growth nationwide. The BLS appears to be predicting it’ll accelerate at about 50 percent. However, most jobs are created by replacement, not growth. Thus, we have a set of ten-year replacement rates that are consistently above 40 percent, which astonishes me, but is still consistent with the national data from last year. I question whether the methodology is producing reliable results. Perhaps law practice is too small an occupation to accurately measure, unlike retail salespeople. Although, it’s necessary to bear in mind that not all lawyer jobs are created equal and some may turnover multiple times in a decade.

Meanwhile, I checked the numbers again, and occupations such as “Dentists, General” and “Physicians and Surgeons, All Other” have ten-year replacement rates below 30 percent. “Paralegals and Legal Assistants” have a staggering ten-year replacement rate of 120 percent.

So yes, the projections don’t inspire me with confidence, but they’re the best, neutral evidence we have about the long-term viability of a law career. If they gave a contrary result (and other evidence backed it up), then I’d arrive at a different conclusion. But today is not that day, so I stand by my opinion that law schools cannot credibly represent good outcomes for their prospective and current students.

# CLASS OF 2017 EMPLOYMENT REPORT: The Rankings

…And now, what you crave: law schools ranked by the percentage of their class of 2017 graduates in full-time, long-term, bar-passage-required jobs.

PERCENT GRADUATES EMPLOYED FULL-TIME/LONG-TERM IN BAR-PASSAGE-REQUIRED JOBS (EXCL. LAW-SCHOOL-FUNDED JOBS)
RANK LAW SCHOOL ’16 ’17 CHANGE
1. Duke 92.4% 93.8% 1.4%
2. Columbia 91.5% 92.8% 1.3%
3. Cornell 90.2% 92.1% 1.9%
4. Chicago 93.5% 92.1% -1.4%
5. Virginia 88.8% 91.6% 2.8%
6. Pennsylvania 89.1% 90.6% 1.5%
7. Michigan 91.1% 90.4% -0.7%
8. New York University 88.9% 88.6% -0.2%
9. California-Berkeley 84.2% 88.2% 4.0%
10. Harvard 88.0% 86.7% -1.2%
11. Vanderbilt 86.3% 86.2% -0.1%
12. Washington University 80.1% 85.8% 5.7%
13. Southern California 70.0% 85.6% 15.6%
14. Georgia 78.3% 84.0% 5.7%
15. Alabama 75.9% 83.2% 7.3%
16. Stanford 89.6% 82.7% -6.9%
17. Seton Hall 80.1% 82.6% 2.5%
18. Baylor 77.2% 82.3% 5.1%
19. Northwestern 81.5% 82.3% 0.7%
20. Tulsa 61.4% 81.4% 19.9%
21. Louisiana State 63.6% 81.3% 17.7%
22. Oklahoma 75.5% 80.8% 5.2%
23. Notre Dame 76.2% 80.7% 4.5%
24. Minnesota 74.4% 80.5% 6.1%
25. Cardozo, Yeshiva 74.6% 80.1% 5.6%
26. Washington and Lee 76.8% 79.8% 3.0%
27. Kentucky 70.7% 79.6% 8.9%
28. Boston College 80.6% 79.4% -1.2%
29. Temple 68.8% 79.3% 10.5%
30. Texas 79.8% 79.2% -0.6%
31. California-Los Angeles 75.6% 79.1% 3.4%
32. Illinois 78.9% 78.2% -0.7%
33. Iowa 71.0% 77.4% 6.4%
34. New Mexico 68.1% 77.4% 9.2%
35. New Hampshire 63.5% 77.0% 13.5%
36. Rutgers 73.1% 76.8% 3.8%
37. Georgetown 74.4% 76.8% 2.4%
38. Lincoln Memorial 76.5% 76.5% 0.0%
39. Ohio State 76.5% 76.4% -0.2%
41. Utah 59.5% 76.1% 16.6%
42. William and Mary 72.0% 76.0% 4.0%
43. Hofstra 73.2% 75.9% 2.7%
44. Florida 71.2% 75.9% 4.7%
45. Southern Methodist 75.2% 75.8% 0.6%
46. Cincinnati 71.2% 75.7% 4.6%
47. Belmont 71.0% 75.6% 4.6%
48. Boston University 71.0% 75.6% 4.5%
49. Missouri (Columbia) 67.5% 75.5% 8.0%
50. Villanova 69.2% 75.5% 6.3%
52. Wake Forest 73.4% 75.1% 1.8%
53. California-Irvine 71.2% 75.0% 3.8%
54. Yale 78.8% 75.0% -3.8%
55. Miami 64.4% 75.0% 10.6%
56. Pace 71.9% 74.7% 2.8%
57. West Virginia 62.6% 74.5% 11.9%
58. Montana 71.8% 74.4% 2.6%
59. Arizona State 68.9% 74.2% 5.3%
60. Wisconsin 71.4% 74.2% 2.9%
61. Missouri (Kansas City) 65.2% 74.1% 8.9%
63. Tennessee 65.2% 73.0% 7.8%
64. St. Louis 66.2% 72.7% 6.5%
65. Florida International 70.6% 72.3% 1.7%
66. St. John’s 72.1% 72.0% -0.2%
67. Penn State (Penn State Law) 66.3% 71.9% 5.6%
68. Emory 70.1% 71.9% 1.8%
69. Brooklyn 66.9% 71.7% 4.8%
70. California-Davis 63.0% 71.3% 8.2%
71. Louisville 60.7% 71.2% 10.6%
72. Marquette 68.1% 71.2% 3.1%
73. Ohio Northern 48.6% 71.2% 22.5%
74. Drexel 75.5% 71.0% -4.5%
75. Albany 70.2% 70.9% 0.7%
76. North Carolina 67.7% 70.8% 3.1%
77. Florida State 72.0% 70.4% -1.5%
78. Denver 62.9% 70.2% 7.3%
79. Fordham 74.5% 70.2% -4.3%
80. George Washington 67.2% 69.8% 2.5%
81. Northeastern 57.2% 69.7% 12.5%
82. Memphis 67.0% 69.7% 2.7%
83. Mercer 60.6% 69.6% 9.0%
84. Georgia State 67.0% 69.6% 2.6%
85. Texas Tech 68.7% 69.5% 0.9%
86. City University 66.3% 69.1% 2.8%
87. Syracuse 60.2% 69.1% 8.9%
88. Washington 67.3% 68.9% 1.6%
89. Kansas 66.1% 68.6% 2.5%
90. Wyoming 74.6% 68.6% -6.1%
91. Creighton 57.5% 68.3% 10.8%
92. Loyola (CA) 62.1% 68.2% 6.1%
93. South Carolina 68.4% 68.1% -0.3%
94. Arkansas (Fayetteville) 64.5% 68.1% 3.6%
95. Touro 62.6% 68.0% 5.4%
96. Richmond 64.2% 67.8% 3.6%
97. Indiana (Bloomington) 69.6% 67.2% -2.4%
98. Penn State (Dickinson Law) 82.4% 67.2% -15.1%
99. Willamette 38.6% 67.0% 28.4%
100. Houston 67.5% 66.2% -1.3%
101. Washburn 68.0% 66.0% -2.0%
102. Oklahoma City 63.5% 65.6% 2.1%
103. Connecticut 71.5% 65.4% -6.2%
104. Arizona 68.5% 64.8% -3.7%
105. Texas A&M [Wesleyan] 59.5% 64.5% 5.0%
106. Tulane 63.3% 64.0% 0.7%
107. Liberty 55.2% 63.8% 8.6%
108. Stetson 56.5% 63.5% 7.0%
109. Duquesne 62.9% 63.5% 0.6%
110. Arkansas (Little Rock) 50.4% 63.3% 12.9%
111. Howard 47.8% 63.1% 15.3%
112. Pittsburgh 61.7% 63.0% 1.3%
113. Campbell 49.5% 62.9% 13.3%
114. Gonzaga 61.6% 62.6% 1.0%
115. Concordia 60.5% 62.5% 2.0%
116. North Dakota 51.3% 62.5% 11.2%
117. Samford 56.9% 62.3% 5.5%
118. Mississippi 57.0% 62.2% 5.2%
119. Loyola (IL) 57.4% 62.2% 4.7%
120. Drake 59.3% 62.1% 2.8%
121. Quinnipiac 44.7% 61.9% 17.2%
122. Oregon 51.2% 61.5% 10.4%
123. SUNY Buffalo 63.2% 61.2% -2.1%
124. George Mason 64.7% 60.5% -4.1%
125. Idaho 67.2% 60.4% -6.8%
126. Baltimore 51.6% 60.3% 8.6%
127. St. Mary’s 60.5% 60.2% -0.3%
128. Case Western Reserve 56.6% 60.1% 3.6%
129. Pepperdine 54.1% 60.1% 5.9%
130. Northern Illinois 59.1% 60.0% 0.9%
131. Brigham Young 64.6% 60.0% -4.6%
132. Chicago-Kent, IIT 56.2% 59.6% 3.4%
133. Texas Southern 52.3% 59.4% 7.1%
134. San Diego 46.8% 59.3% 12.5%
135. Michigan State 56.2% 59.3% 3.1%
136. Akron 46.8% 59.2% 12.4%
137. Widener (Commonwealth) 49.1% 59.0% 10.0%
138. Regent 64.8% 59.0% -5.8%
139. California-Hastings 51.3% 58.9% 7.6%
140. Hawaii 53.2% 58.3% 5.2%
141. South Dakota 70.7% 58.2% -12.5%
142. Seattle 52.2% 57.9% 5.7%
143. Maryland 59.2% 57.1% -2.0%
144. Nova Southeastern 49.0% 57.1% 8.1%
145. Loyola (LA) 46.8% 57.0% 10.3%
146. Wayne State 61.8% 57.0% -4.8%
147. Santa Clara 47.4% 56.6% 9.2%
148. John Marshall (Chicago) 51.7% 56.5% 4.8%
149. Lewis and Clark 53.1% 56.3% 3.2%
150. Vermont 50.9% 56.1% 5.2%
151. Maine 63.4% 55.4% -8.0%
152. Toledo 36.4% 55.3% 18.9%
153. Indiana (Indianapolis) 48.8% 55.2% 6.4%
154. Southern Illinois 57.3% 55.2% -2.1%
155. Massachusetts — Dartmouth 39.6% 55.1% 15.5%
156. Catholic 38.4% 55.0% 16.5%
157. DePaul 53.8% 54.8% 0.9%
158. Chapman 49.4% 54.7% 5.4%
159. St. Thomas (FL) 48.0% 54.7% 6.7%
160. Widener (Delaware) 47.4% 54.1% 6.7%
161. Roger Williams 51.2% 54.1% 2.9%
162. Capital 37.8% 53.8% 16.0%
163. California Western 46.6% 53.8% 7.2%
164. St. Thomas (MN) 55.7% 53.3% -2.4%
165. South Texas-Houston 52.9% 53.0% 0.2%
166. American 52.8% 53.0% 0.2%
167. Appalachian 35.7% 52.4% 16.7%
168. Mitchell|Hamline 57.6% 52.3% -5.3%
169. Cleveland State 52.1% 52.1% 0.0%
170. Mississippi College 59.3% 51.6% -7.6%
171. Northern Kentucky 48.3% 51.6% 3.3%
172. North Texas-Dallas N/A 51.5% N/A
173. New York Law School 53.3% 51.0% -2.3%
174. Dayton 49.4% 50.0% 0.6%
175. Faulkner 58.1% 49.4% -8.8%
176. San Francisco 32.9% 49.0% 16.2%
177. Pacific, McGeorge 40.3% 47.3% 7.0%
178. Suffolk 43.2% 46.7% 3.5%
179. Florida A&M 37.5% 46.6% 9.1%
180. Barry 33.6% 46.3% 12.7%
181. Southern University 45.5% 45.6% 0.1%
182. Charleston 53.2% 44.5% -8.6%
183. Western State 33.0% 43.8% 10.9%
184. Detroit Mercy 33.6% 43.7% 10.1%
185. Southwestern 38.9% 43.5% 4.6%
186. Western New England 42.7% 42.6% -0.1%
187. Florida Coastal 36.1% 40.8% 4.6%
188. Atlanta’s John Marshall 35.0% 40.7% 5.8%
189. Ave Maria 57.1% 39.5% -17.6%
190. Valparaiso 35.6% 38.4% 2.8%
191. New England 38.6% 38.2% -0.4%
192. Golden Gate 26.8% 37.9% 11.1%
193. Arizona Summit [Phoenix] 38.0% 34.4% -3.6%
194. Elon 33.7% 34.1% 0.4%
195. La Verne 13.7% 31.6% 17.9%
196. WMU Cooley 30.5% 30.7% 0.2%
197. North Carolina Central 35.0% 30.1% -4.9%
198. Whittier 29.7% 29.5% -0.2%
199. District of Columbia 34.0% 26.8% -7.3%
200. Thomas Jefferson 21.9% 23.6% 1.7%
201. Puerto Rico 22.5% 20.5% -2.0%
202. Inter American 9.9% 8.8% -1.1%
203. Pontifical Catholic 0.0% 0.7% 0.7%
204. Charlotte 23.5% N/A N/A
TOTAL (EXCL. P.R.) 62.5% 67.1% 4.6%
10TH PERCENTILE (EXCL. P.R.) 37.8% 45.6% 7.8%
25TH PERCENTILE (EXCL. P.R.) 51.2% 56.1% 4.9%
MEDIAN (EXCL. P.R.) 62.9% 66.1% 3.2%
75TH PERCENTILE (EXCL. P.R.) 71.2% 75.6% 4.4%
90TH PERCENTILE (EXCL. P.R.) 80.1% 82.6% 2.5%
MEAN (EXCL. P.R.) 60.7% 64.8% 4.1%

One school I omitted was Indiana Tech, which had graduating classes for the last two years but didn’t report any graduate employment outcomes for ’16 (much less ’17). The ’16 class had only 18 graduates, so it’s not a big loss, but to pound my fists again, the ABA should be maintaining data on all law schools on its required disclosures site and not just ones that have chosen not to shut down. It’s downright Orwellian.

**********

Because I hope to merge all my employment reports in the future, here’s a list of all of them.